The Periodic Table

The Periodic Table

This shows all the elements we know about. It arranges stuff in a nice order based on their properties. It also sets out shorthand for the name of each element. This can be handy too…except for element like Sodium which is called Na, oh and Iron which is called Fe….and lots more that are based on their Latin name.

How The Table Is Arranged

  • The table is set out with elements with similar properties in the same vertical column. These are called “groups”
  • All elements in a group have the same number of electrons in their outer shell and it is this that gives them their similar properties

For example let’s look at group 1:

These are all metals that react with water to form an alkaline solution and hydrogen gas and they all react with oxygen to form an oxide.

Let’s look at group 8:

These are the “noble” or “inert” gasses, They all have eight electrons in the outer shell (well, helium has 2). This means they are stable and don’t react with things.

Atomic and mass number